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Full text of "Weight, Specific Gravity, Rates of Absorption, and Capabilities of Standing Heat of Various Building Stones"

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254 



SCIENCE. 



twelve days, the younger the germ the less time 
should it be exposed to chromic acid. After having 
been in alcohol a week it is transferred to a sherry 
wine colored solution of bichromate of potash for a 
period sufficient to harden it. 

With a cataract needle the investigator will then 
cut a trench around the embryo, cutting through 
the vitelline membrane, which fixes the embryo to 
the vitellus, and then lift it away and remove it from 
the latter, which, brittle and crumby, cannot be cut. 
The staining in a solution of carmine, as described 
for adult brains in this paper, will require from one 
to four days, according to the size of the embryo. 
Of each stage three series of sections are necessary, 
one transverse, one horizontal, and a third, the most 
important, sagittal, that is parallel to the median 
plane. 

All these minutiae, however wearisome they will 
prove, are necessary, and he who has thus with his 
scalpel, reagents and razor, constructed an open 
volume of natural specimens, will find himself 
richly rewarded by the richness in detail, the mani- 
fold character of the morphologies, and the sugges- 
tive character of the relations exposed. 

The material for such a study can be obtained in 
a fresh state from no one locality. The student 
residing in New York will have to take a vacation 
trip to the Mississippi ; he living in Chicago a cor- 
responding trip to the Atlantic coast. 

In the West he will find the great lake catfish, 
the lake sturgeon, the Atnia calva, the gar-pike, 
and the remarkable spatularia, the brains of all of 
which should be studied. Possibly he may obtain 
the fresh water lamprey (Hylomyzon), but one 
brain which he should not neglect is that of the 
blind fish of the Kentucky caves, whose examina- 
tion is destined to clear up somewhat the true rela- 
tions of the lobi iriferiores and the optic lobes. On 
the Atlantic coast all the bony fish, obtainable in 
the fresh waters of the West, besides a rich variety 
of salt water forms, also the lamprey, the shark and 
ray are obtainable. A trip to the Bermudas or the 
Florida coast, occupying about two weeks, will in- 
crease the student's repertoire with a host of tropi- 
cal and sub-tropical genera. 



WEIGHT, SPECIFIC GRAVITY, RATES OF AB- 
SORPTION, AND CAPABILITIES OF STAND- 
ING HEAT OF VARIOUS BUILDING STONES. 
By Hikam A. Cutting, Ph. D., State Geologist Vermont. 

Having during the past year instituted, and carried out, 
a series of experiments to ascertain, as nearly as possible, 
the capabilities of the various materials used in the con- 
struction of so called fire proof buildings, to stand heat, 
I submit, in tabulated form, the result of such experiments, 
hoping they may be of use to the architects, quarrymen 
and Insurance companies of our country, and also of 
some interest to those interested in science. 

In connection with the capabilities of the various build- 
ing stones to stand fire and water, I have taken their 
specific gravity, and weight per cubic foot, so that the 
identity of the various stones could at any time be com- 



pared, and if in the working of a quarry there was a 
change in gravity, or weight, that it could be easily de- 
tected, and thus all who choose could know whether the 
tests given would apply or not. 

I have procured sample specimens of the most import- 
ant building stones in the United States, and Canada, 
and, after dressing them into as regular form as possible, 
three by four inches, and two inches in thickness, I have 
taken their ratio of absorption, which ratio I have ex- 
pressed in units of weight, according to the amount of 
witer taken up. If 450 units of stone absorbed one unit 
of water, I have expressed it thus : 1 + 450, meaning 
that the stone weighed 450 units when immersed, and 
451 when taken from the water. 

To accelerate the process of absorption I have placed 
the specimens in water under the exausted receiver of an 
air pump. I find that in this way as much water is ab- 
sorbed in a few minutes as in days of soaking. When 
specimens were removed from the water, I have, before 
weighing, dried their outsides with blotting paper. In 
relation to the specific gravity, I have not followed " Gil- 
more's " rule in full. He weighed the specimens in air, 
immersed them in water, and allowed them to remain 
until bubbling had ceased and then weighed them in 
water, after which he took them from the water, dried 
them outside with bibulous paper, and weighed them 
again in air. From this last weight he subtracted the 
weight in water, dividing the dry weight by the differ- 
ence. 

This gave a specific gravity subject to two sources of 
error. I have followed the more frequent custom of 
weighing the dry stone, using pieces of two or three 
pounds in weight, and then immersing them in water. 
After the usual saturation I have taken their weight in 
water, subtracting it from the dry weight in air, and 
then dividing the dry weight by the difference. This 
gives the specific gravity of the rock itself, as usually 
found, which is what we desire, and I believe as it would 
generally be in buildings constructed of the given ma- 
terial. The specimens were previously dried by long ex- 
posure to a temperature not exceeding 200 Fah. To 
verify this I have taken specimens from the quarries di- 
rect, and after weighing, have brushed them over with 
paraffine dissolved in naphtha, weighing them again so 
as to ascertain the exact amount of paraffine, which 
made no visible change in the stone, other than to keep 
out water. I have then weighed in the usual way, and 
thus obtained the exact specific gravity of the stone as 
in the quarry, and I find my method used, as stated, to 
give the best results, and so have adopted it. 

After this I have placed them in a charcoal furnace, 
the heat of which was shown by a standard pyrometer. 
In many instances I have placed them side by side with 
dry specimens, but have been unable to note any marked 
difference in the action of heat, beyond this, that the dry 
specimens became sooner heated, I have, however, no 
doubt that the capacity of a stone to absorb water is 
against its durability, even in warm climates, and vastly 
more so in the changeable and wintry climate of New 
England. It is here often frozen before any considerable 
part of the moisture from Autumn rains can be evapor- 
ated, 

When the specimens were heated to 6oo° Fah., I have 
immersed them in water, also immersing others, or the 
same, if uninjured, at 800° and 900 , that is if they are not 
spoiled at less temperatures. I find that all of these 
samples of building stones have stood heat without dam- 
age up to 500°. At 6oo° a few are injured ; but the in- 
jury in many cases commences at or near that point. 
When cooled without immersion they appear to the eye 



SCIENCE. 



255 



to be injured less, but are ready to crumble, and I think 
they are many times nearly as much impaired, and always 
somewhat injured, when water produces any injury. 

I would remark that my experiments with granites 
show that there is quite a range in their capabilities of 
standing heat, a range in fact much greater than I antici- 
pated. With the sandstones the difference is also marked, 
as is their power of absorption. When exposed to the 
heat wet, they show a marked difference in the time re- 
quired to heat them, the saturated ones seeming to resist 
the heat for a time ; but when equally hot they crumble 
the same as those not previously saturated. Their rela- 
tive worth can be seen by the table. The conglomerates 



stand heat badly ; while the limestones and marble stand 
best of all (up to the point where they.by continued heat, 
are changed to quick lime) except soapstone, and a 
species of artificial stone made under the McMurtire & 
Chamberlain patent. The indications are, from this and 
other samples of artificial stone, that it may be possible 
to make an artificial stone cheaper and better for fire 
proof buildings than our native quarries furnish; and we 
hope this possibility may receive attention. But corn- 
men's are useless, as the facts set forth in the tables 
speak for themselves. 

I give you results in tabulated form below. 



GRANITES. 



No. 



14 

15 
16 

17 



KIND. 



LOCALITY. 



Light colored - 

Denning's Quarry 

Light colored 

Red 

Light colored 

Red 

Colored medium 

Sanborn's Quarry 

Carter's Quarry 

Wetmore & Morse's Quany 

Syenite 

Gray , 

Common 

Scranton County Quarry... 

Qld Dominion Quarry 

Light colored 

Coarse 



Hallowell, Me 

Fox Island, Me 

Mt. Desert, Me 

Rockfoid, Me 

Red Beach, Calais, Me 

Oak Hill, Me 

Stark, N. H.. 

Concord, N. H_.._ . 

Plymouth, N. H 

Ryegate, Vt 

Woodbury, Vt... 

Barre, Vt 

Quincy, Mass.. 

Croton, Conn 

Woodstock, Md 

Port Deposit, Md 

Richmond, Va 

St. Cloud, Minn.. 

Stanstead, P. Q 

North Halifax, N. S... 
Gauauogue, P. O., Can 



Specific 
Gravity. 


Weight 
of One 
Cubic 


Ratio of 
Absorp- 


First 
Appear- 
ance of 




Foot. 




Injury. 




Lbs. 




Deg. Fah. 


^638 


164.8 


j +790 


800 


2.642 


165. 1 


1+680 


700 


2.631 


164.1 


1+716 


800 


2.600 


162.5 


1+482 


600 


2.636 


164.7 
157.8 


1 + 560 


800 


2.526 


1+310 


800 


2.6^1 


164. 1 


!+534 


600 


2.636 


164.7 


1 + 778 


800 


2.649 


165-5 


1+685 


800 


2.647 


165.4 


1 + 790 


800 


2.654 


165.8 


1 + 784 


800 


2.65c 


165.6 


1 + 720 


800 


2.660 


166.2 


1 + 650 


750 


-2.800 


175° 


1+818 


700 


2.648 


l6 5-5 


'+394 


700 


2.700 


.168.7 


1 + 816 


800 


2.727 


170.5 


1 + 398 


750 


2.674 


167.7 


1+402 


750 


2.690 


168.2 


1+280 


700 


2833 


177.0 


1+420 


800 


^.698 


168.6 


1+584 


700 


2.687 


l6 7-9 


1+736 


800 



Crumbles 

or 

Cracks 

Sughtly. 



Deg. Fah 

900 

800 
850 
800 
850 
850 
700 
900 
900 
900 
goo 
900 
800 
75o 
750 
900 
800 
800 
700 
900 
800 
850 



Cracks 


Injured 


Badly 


so as to be 


or 


Worth- 


Becomes 


less for a 


Friable. 


Building. 


Deg. Fah. 


Deg. Fah. 


950 


1000 


850 


900 


95° 


IOOO 


850 


900 


900 


950 


QOO 


950 


800 


850 


950 


IOOO 


950 


IOOO 


950 


IOOO 


950 


IOOO 


950 


IOOO 


850 


QOO 


SOO 


900 


800 


900 


950 


IOOO 


850 


goo 


850 


900 


80O 


850 


IOOO 


IOOO 


800 


900 


900 


950 



Melted 

or 
Ruined. 

Deg. Fah. 

1 100 

IOOO 

1100 

950 

IOOO 
IOOO 

950 

1200 
1200 
1200 

1200 
1200 

IOOO 

900 
900 
1 100 

IOOO 
IOOO 

900 
1200 

900 

IOOO 



SANDSTONE. 



13 
14 

16 

17 
18 



Freestone 

Seneca Stone - 

Sandstone. __ 

Montrose Stone — 
Freestone 

S. Carboniferous... 

Freestone. 

Cincinnati Stone.. 
Potsdam Sandstone 

Berlin 4 Stone 

Potsdam 

Euclid Stone 

Berea Stone 

Amherst Stone 

Brown Stone 

Potsdam Sandstone 
Sandstone 

Freestone 

Brown Stone 



Portland, Conn... 

North of England 

Montgomery Co., Md.-- 

Salem, Md_. 

Seneca, Md 

Ulster Co., N. Y 

Belleville, N. J 

Nova Scotia 

Br. Phillipe, N. S 

Dorchester, N. B 

Cincinnati, O 

McBride's Corners, O.-. 

Cleveland, O. 

McBride's Corners, O.. 

Near Cleveland, O 

Berea, O 

Amherst, O 

Humbletown, Pcnn 

Beauharnois, P. Q 

Murray Bay, P. Q 

Cheat River, W. Va 

Acqua Creek, Va .. 

Manasses, Va 



2.380 


I48.7 


1+27 


850 


900 


95o 


IOOO 


2.i6i 


135.5 


1+27 


850 


900 


95o 


950 


2.500 


156.2 


1+26 


850 


900 


900 


950 


2.452 


153-2 


1+ 24. 


850 


900 


95o 


IOOO 


2.410 


I50.6 


1+40 


900 


IOOO 


1 100 


1200 


2.661 


166.3 


1 + 314 


900 


IOOO 


1 100 


1200 


2 35o 


I46.8 


1+27 


900 


950 


IOOO 


1 100 


2.424 


I5I-5 


1+240 


900 


950 


1O00 


1 100 


2-353 


147.O 


1+19 


goo 


950 


950 


IOOO 


2.363 


147-7 


1+26 


800 


850 


900 


IOOO 


2.188 


i36.r 


1+23 


900 


950 


IOOO 


IIOO 


2-333 


145.8 


1+ 28 


800 


850 


900 


IOOO 


2.2IO 


1 38. 1 


1+22 


850 


900 


IOOO 


IIOO 


2.5OO 


156.2 


1 f 22 


850 


900 


950 


IOOO 


2.29O 


1 43- 1 


1+ 35 


850 


goo 


950 


IOOO 


2.254 


140.8 


1+20 


850 


900 


950 


IOOO 


2.200 


I 37*5 


1+ 18 


850 


900 


changes 


color. 


2.346 


146.6 


1+28 


850 


900 


950 


IOOO 


2.512 


i57-o 


1+ 3S 


850 


900 


953 


IOOO 


2-577 


161.0 


1+ 36 


900 


950 


IOOO 


IIOO 


2.632 


164.5 


1+ 80 


8oo 


850 


900 


IOOO 


2.I85 


ij6.4 


1+ 16 


900 


950 


IOOO 


IIOO 


2.348 


146.7 


1+ 17 


850 


900 


IOOO 


IIOO 



IIOO 
IOOO 

950 

IIOO 

1200 
1200 

IIOO 
IIOO 

IOOO 
IOOO 
IIOO 
IIOO 
IIOO 
IOOO 
IOOO 
IOOO 
IOOO 
IOOO 
IOOO 
IIOO 
IIOO 

1200 
1200 



LIMESTONE. 



Limestone 

Cincinnati Limestone 

Potts Blue 

Dolomite Limestone.. 
Trenton Limestone... 
Limestone. 



Baltimore, Md. 2.917 

Bedford, Ind 2.47S 

Hamilton County, 2.204 

Springfield, Penn 2.666 

Owen Sound P.O... ... 2.571 

Montreal, P. Q__-_ 2.706 

Isle La Motte, Vt 2.656 



181.8 


1+340 


930 


IOOO 


IIOO 


1200 


154.8 


1+280 


850 


900 


IOOO 


1200 


137.7 


1+ 28 


850 


900 


950 


1200 


166.6 


1+280 


850 


850 


goo 


IOOO 


t6o.6 


1+480 


850 


900 


IIOO 


1200 


169.1 


1+316 


900 


950 


loon 


1200 


168.5 


1 +320 


95o 


IOOO 


no 


1200 



1200 
1200 
1200 
1200 
1200 
1200 
1200 



CONGLOMERATES. 



Conglomerate Roxbury, Mass 

Potomac Stone Point of Rocks, Md 

Conglomerate Cape a La Aisle, P. Q... 



2.708 
2.724 
2.645 



169.2 
170.2 
165.3 



i + 49 
1+60 
1 + 80 



700 
600 
600 



800 
700 
700 



900 
800 
800 



IOOO 

900 
900 



IOOO 

900 
900 



256 



SCIENCE. 



MARBLES. 



No. 



KIND. 



LOCALITY. 



Specific 
Gravity. 



Weight 

of 

One 

Cubic 

Foot. 



Ratio 
of 
Absorp- 
tion. 



First 
Appear- 
ance 
of 
Injury. 



Crumbles 

or 

Cracks 

Slightly. 



Cracks 

Badly 

or 

Becomes 

Friable. 



Injured 
so as to be 

Worth- 
less for a 
Building. 



Melted 

or 
Ruined. 



Tuckahoe 

Ashley Falls.... 

Snow Flake 

Tennessee 

Duke Marble 

Black Marble 

Sutherland Falls 



Westchester Co., N. Y... 

Ashley Falls, N. Y 

Westchester Co.,N. Y... 
Dougherty's Q'y^ E.Tenn 
Near Harper's Ferry, Va. 

Isle La Motte, Vt 

Rutland, Vt 



2.794 
2.742 



2.711 
2.812 



171 
178 
i6y 
175 
176 
166 



1 +298 
I -I- 280 
1 + 380 
I + 320 
1 + 340 
1+320 
l + 342 



l>eg. Fab. 

yoo 

go ) 

95° 

95" 
io::o 
1000 ■ 
1000 



Deg. Fah. 
1000 

io:;o 

95° 
1000 
1000 

IOCO 



Deg. Fah. 
1200 

1 100 
1000 



1 roo 

1 1 'JO 

1 100 



Deg. Fah 

1 2Q.n 
1200 
1200 
12.0 
1200 
T200 
I2O0 



Deg. Fah. 



12' o 

1200 

1200 
1200 
i?oo 
1200 
1200 



SLATES. 








2.860 


179-3 


1 + 110 


800 


850 


900 


TOOO 












SOAPSTONES. 






Weathersfield, Vt 


2.668 


166.7 


1+3 8 


1200 


— - 




— - 










ARTIFICIAL STONE. 


1 
1 Artificial Stone 


jMcMurtire & Cham- I 
1 berlain's patent f 


2.235 


139-7 


1 + 280 


75° 


800 


I TOO 


I200 


.... 



MINERAL WAX, A RESUME. 
By M. Benjamin, Ph. B. 

Geographical Distribution. Mineral wax or ozocerite 
(from oC,tm, to smell, and av'pos, wax") is found in a sand- 
stone in Moldavia, in the vincinity of coal and reck salt. 
It also occurs in large quantities at Borislav, near 
Drohobycz.and at Dzwiniacz, near Stainstawow in Galicia, 
a province of Austria. The mines are situated at the 
northern toot of the Carpathian Mountains. It has also 
been found at several other places in the same province. 
Small quantities have been discovered in England, at 
Binney Quarry, Linlithgowshire ; at the Urpeth Colliery, 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, and in Wales. In this country it 
has been found in Texas, in Utah and in California, about 
fifty miles northeast of Los Angelos, among the Sierra 
Madre Mountains In Utah the mineral occurs in shale 
beds, out of which the ozocerite appears as exudations. 
These shale beds are quite extensive — some forty to 
sixty miles lor.g by twenty wide, and from seventy to ,orty 
feet in thickness. It is thought that by digging and 
boring the supply of the wax may be increased. 

Geologically it is presumed that these beds were: 
formed in a tertiary lake or peat bog. Prof. J. S. New- 
berry suspects that it will be found to be an evolved pro- 
duct, the distillation of beds of cretaceous lignite and 
the residue of a petroleum unusually rich in paraffine. 
The foreign deposits are considered to be about of the 
same age. 

Mode of Occurrence. It is generally found (referring 
to Galacia) in thin layers and small pieces which must 
separated from the matrix in which they are found. 
The smallest pieces are only obtained by a process of 
washing. It is sometimes found in lumps or layers trom 
one to three feet in thickness, a lump sometimes weigh- 
ing several hundred we ght. 

Physical Properties. It is like a resinous wax in 
consistency and translucency, sometimes with a foliated 
structure. Its color is brown or brownish yellow by 
transmitted light and leek green by rente ed light. The 
poorer qualities, which are colored black and are either 
too soft from abundance of petroleum or too hard 
(asphalt like in character), are mainly used for the pro- 



duction of paraffin. It possesses a pit asantly aromatic 
odor. The American variety is described as black in 
the mass, sections of which are translucent. 

Its Chemical hature. The specific gravity of ozocerite 
is 0.94 to 0.97. According to Dana it ranges from 0.85 
to 0.90. 

Its melting point is vari usly given as follows : 

The Moldavian, 84 -_ ...Malaguti. 

Urpeth mineral, 6o° _ ..Johnson. 

Galacian, 6o° __ Hofstadter. 

Utah. _ 6i°5 Newberry. 

Moldavian, 62 Schrotter. 

From Slanlk, 62 Glocker. 

Galacian, 63 _ Wagner. 

The boiling poii.t is likewise differei tly given by the 
authorities : 

Urpeth mineral, 121 — Johnson. 

Moldavian, 210 ...Schrotter. 

Moldavian, 300 Malaguti. 

Utah, between 300 and 380 Newberry. 

Concerning this last determination, Dr. S. B. Newberry 
says ; 1.5 grammes of the substance were treated with 
about 300 c. c. of cold ether, and allowed to stand for 
twenty-four houis. The substance was decanted 
through a filter, tvaporated, and the resulting mineral 
tested to obtain the melting point. This treatment gave 
me a fraction equal to 25.4 per cent, of the original sub- 
stance, and having a melting point of 49. ° C. The 
residue was again treated with 200 c. c. of cold ether 
for about the same time, and gave a further product 
equal to 9.1 per cent, of the original mass, fusing at 6i°. 
On boiling the undissolved portion in about 500 c. c. of 
ether the whole mass went into solution, and upon evapor- 
ation was found to have a fusing point of 67 . It distills 
without decomposition, is not altered by strong acids, and 
very little by hot alcohol. The Moldavian variety dissolves 
but slightly in ether, whereas that found at Urpeth dis- 
solves in this medium to the amount of foui-filths, and 
separates on evaporation in brown flecks, which melt at 
38. °9 to a yellowish brown liquid. The solubility of the 
variety found in Utah has been sufficiently referred to in 
the remarks on its fusing point. The composition of 
ozocerite has been found to be :